wallingford castle

Wallingford Castle

Nestled in the countryside of Oxfordshire along the River Thames lies the ruined remains of the once grand Wallingford Castle. Though now reduced to crumbling walls and rolling earthworks, this medieval castle has a long and turbulent history stretching back over 950 years.

Early History

The beginnings of Wallingford Castle start with the Anglo-Saxon burgh or fortified town that existed on this strategic river crossing for centuries before the Norman invasion of 1066. After William the Conqueror’s successful conquest, he constructed several key castles to solidify control over the Thames Valley, including Windsor and the new royal fortress at Wallingford.

Motte-and-Bailey Established

Robert D’Oyly, an ally of William, built the first Wallingford Castle between 1067-1071. He constructed a classic Norman motte-and-bailey design with the tall motte mound overlooking the River Thames and the neighboring settlement.

12th Century Expansions

In the 12th century, Brien FitzCount massively expanded the fortress, replacing the original wooden fortifications with strong stone walls and towers surrounding the bailey ward. It was now a formidable royal bastion, described by one historian as “one of the most powerful royal castles of the 12th and 13th centuries.”

The Anarchy

Civil War Role

When civil war erupted between Empress Matilda and King Stephen for the English crown in 1139, Wallingford Castle became a pivotal stronghold. Its lord, the unpredictable Brien FitzCount, switched allegiance and supported Matilda’s claim. Wallingford now blocked Stephen’s access to the west country and London itself.

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Withstanding Siege

Stephen repeatedly tried but failed to seize Wallingford, unable to break through its reputedly “impregnable walls.” Though surrounded by a ring of Stephen’s counter-castles, Wallingford withstood several long sieges thanks to Brien’s ample stockpiling. The castle proved instrumental during Matilda’s conflicts with Stephen.

Royal Residence

In the 13th century, Richard, Earl of Cornwall significantly expanded Wallingford into a more luxurious palace fortress. Later rulers like Edward II and Edward III continued using it as a royal castle, prison, and opulent royal lodgings for centuries.

Luxurious Development

Richard’s extensive building gave Wallingford Castle glittering new royal apartments, a splendid great hall, and other grand improvements befitting a King of the Romans. Though Richard primarily lived in it before his election to German royalty, it remained closely associated with later monarchs.

Eventful 14th Century

King Edward II favored several nobles by gifting them Wallingford, while his wife Queen Isabella also resided for periods within its formidable walls. After Edward’s deposition in 1327, Isabella used the fortress as an early headquarters for her invasion. It continued holding enemies of the crown through the 14th century during periods of political turmoil.


After standing sturdily for over 400 years, Henry VIII ended the castle’s status as a royal seat in the early 16th century. Queen Mary stripped Wallingford’s building materials to reuse at Windsor Castle, accelerating its decline.

Royal Abandonment

While the castle prison remained actively incarcerating enemies of the state, the buildings themselves slid into disrepair without royal attention. By 1540, John Leland described them as “sore yn ruine, and for the most part defaced.” While remnants endured into the 17th century, the days of royal residence ended with Henry VIII’s desertion.

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Civil War

The outbreak of the English Civil War in the mid-17th century breathed brief new life into the crumbling ruins of Wallingford Castle.

Refortified Stronghold

The strategic location still held importance, with Wallingford becoming an active Royalist bastion. In 1643, King Charles himself ordered its refortification. Thomas Blagge was appointed governor as they converted the medieval ruins into a modern fortress that could defend the Oxford perimeter.

Surrender and Slighting

The updated Wallingford Castle withstood over a year of Parliamentary assault but after Oxford fell in 1646, its position became untenable. General Fairfax’s siege finally compelled surrender that summer. Cromwell’s Parliament subsequently voted to destroy it as a future threat, leading to thorough slighting or demolition by 1652 that left only remnants still visible today.

Aftermath & Today

Though comprehensively demolished in 1652, fragments of Wallingford Castle still survived use for limited purposes afterwards. The remaining castle jail continued housing prisoners till the early 18th century. In the Victorian era, a large mansion house materialized on the bailey site until its demolition in 1972 allowed the stabilized ruins to open publicly. Visitors can now explore the castle grounds to admire the surviving earthworks and some castle walls as echoes of Wallingford’s former prominence in a long, dramatic history spanning nearly a millennium.


Rising and falling several times over its long lifetime, Wallingford Castle remains a poignant monument to the enduring strategic significance of its River Thames location. First constructed shortly after the Norman Conquest, it played a starring role defending the Empress Matilda during a brutal civil war. Later serving frequently as a luxurious palace, prison, and stronghold for observing the ford over the river, the royal castle met its final demise amid the upheavals of the English Civil War. Though largely destroyed centuries ago, its extensive grassy banks, remnants of architecture, and formidable motte mound still bear witness to many turning points in British history.

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When was Wallingford Castle first built?

Wallingford Castle was likely constructed between 1067-1071 by Norman Robert D’Oyl on orders from William the Conqueror. It replaced an earlier Anglo-Saxon fortified town on the site.

Who expanded it into stone fortifications in the 12th century?

The major stone expansions of Wallingford Castle in the 1100s can be attributed to Brien FitzCount, an ally of King Henry I and son of the Duke of Brittany. His improvements made it a formidable royal bastion.

Why was Wallingford Castle important during the Anarchy civil war?

As a stronghold backing Empress Matilda from 1139-1153 during her conflict with King Stephen, Wallingford Castle blocked Stephen’s forces and withstood repeated lengthy sieges on her behalf, playing a pivotal role.

When did it transition into more of a luxurious palace fortress?

Richard, Earl of Cornwall significantly expanded and improved Wallingford into more lavish royal lodgings during his tenure from 1231-1251 when he was granted the castle by Henry III. Succeeding monarchs continued enhancing it.

What eventually led to its decline by the 16th century?

After centuries as an active royal fortress, Henry VIII ended this role by separating it from the Duchy of Cornwall early in his reign, beginning its gradual loss of importance and repair. Stripping of building materials accelerated its ruin.

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